Haemoglobin Level Comprehensive Guide

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Haemoglobin Level Comprehensive Guide

Haemoglobin Levels

The level of hemoglobin in the body is measured in terms of hemoglobin amount in grams per deciliter of the whole blood in the human body. The normal hemoglobin values range from person to person and depend upon age. An adult male is considered healthy if the hemoglobin count is 14 to 18 gm/dl, while an adult female should have between 12 to 16gm/dl hemoglobin level. On the contrary, a middle-aged man should have hemoglobin count anywhere between 12.4 to 14.9 gm/dl, while a middle-aged woman should have 11.7 to 13.8 gm/dl hemoglobin count in the body.

Here is a simplified Hemoglobin level chart.

Age Group

Haemoglobin Count (gm/dl)

Normal Hemoglobin Levels in New Born Babies 17- 22
Normal Hemoglobin Levels in Children 11-13
Normal Hemoglobin Levels in Adults (Male) 14-18
Normal Hemoglobin Levels in Adults (Female) 12-16
Normal Hemoglobin Levels in Elderly (Male) 12.4-14.9
Normal Hemoglobin Levels in Elderly (Female) 11.7-13.8

Different Hemoglobin Levels

Decreased hemoglobin levels result in a disease called anaemia. The decreased level can occur due to many reasons like accidental blood loss due to an injury, deficiency of iron and vitamin B-12, replacement of bone marrow due to leukaemia, kidney failure and sickle cell anaemia. Increased levels may be an attribute of some other reasons like rigorous smoking, certain tumours in the body, etc. While certain deficiencies and bad habits cause an increased or decreased hemoglobin count in many, some people suffer from this problem from birth.

Hemoglobin and Thalassemia

Thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia are the two conditions in which the hemoglobin levels are a deficit by birth. Thalassemia is a hereditary feature in many males and females all over the world. A severe deficiency may even result in death. Another decreased hemoglobin disease by birth is sickle cell anaemia. In this, the shape of the red blood cells is not like the regular shape found in every individual. It is a sickle cell shaped. However, it becomes a boon against malarial immunity.

Increase your Hemoglobin Levels

As discussed above that the reduced hemoglobin levels result in anaemia. It is necessary to include iron-rich food in your diet if you suffer from this problem. The diet should be supplemented with food items like red meat, dried peas and beans, green leafy vegetables, radish, apricots, etc. In men, a hemoglobin count less than 13.5 grams/ml blood and in women a hemoglobin count less than 12 grams/ 100 ml blood, is taken to be a state of anaemia.

Idea Hemoglobin Level in Pregnancy

Women should be cautious about the hemoglobin levels in their body especially at the time of pregnancy. During the early days of pregnancy 13 is a good count of hemoglobin. As the days progress, the reduced level is an attribute of the expanding blood volume. Thus, overall maintaining Normal hemoglobin level is essential for healthy living in men as well as in women. Idea Hemoglobin Level in Pregnancy is must to have Natural delivery. 

Low Hemoglobin Levels

Low hemoglobin levels pose a real risk which will endanger the rest of the body organs and systems. The presence of red blood cells is vital to the oxygen supply throughout the human framework. It is necessary for the protein molecule is known as hemoglobin to be healthy in order to do its function well. A low level of hemoglobin can be disastrous to the heart. It can lead this organ to pump doubly hard in order to produce hemoglobin at a quantity required by the body.

The body needs oxygen. With that said, the human framework can only function if the blood can fully circulate at all times. Roaming through all the body systems, however, does not guarantee a pink of health. Red blood cells must also be healthy in order to fully accomplish their roles. The presence of dangerously low hemoglobin levels brings a danger which can lead to further complication later in life. It is necessary to check every now and then the symptoms of blood problems. If unchecked, organ systems will fall prey to some disastrous impediments. Healthy hemoglobin means everything if health is to be maintained.You should also checkout “low hemoglobin symptoms” for more detail.


The low Hemoglobin Levels are:

  • Newborn Babies: 17-22 gm/dl
  • Children: 11-13 gm/dl
  • Adult Males: 14-18 gm/dl
  • Adult Women: 12-16 gm/dl
  • Elderly Males: 12.4-14.9 gm/dl
  • Elderly Females: 11.7-13.8 gm/dl


Normal Hemoglobin Levels

Normal hemoglobin levels are the end result of healthy hemoglobin content. The presence of this protein material helps in the circulation of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide in the body. Levels of hemoglobin is measured according to wavelengths were collecting the light absorbed by the sliced protein reveals the total quantity of hemoglobin levels.

Healthy red blood cells are vital to a vigorous circulatory system. Good blood flow throughout the body contributes a lot to a fully-functional organ framework. The blood is the main carrier of nutrients to all parts of the human structure. It is interesting to note that a minuscule part like the blood can have a lasting effect on the rest of the organs. The continuous circulation adds vigour not merely on the aspect of bringing or carrying nourishment to all body systems. Having normal hemoglobin levels is the main reason why the blood must be in full gear when serving its purpose.


The Normal Hemoglobin Levels are:

  • Newborns: 17-22 gm/dl
  • One (1) week of age: 15-20 gm/dl
  • One (1) month of age: 11-15gm/dl
  • Children: 11-13 gm/dl
  • Adult males: 14-18 gm/dl
  • Adult women: 12-16 gm/dl
  • Men after middle age: 12.4-14.9 gm/dl
  • Women after middle age: 11.7-13.8 gm/dl


The Truth about Normal Hemoglobin Levels

To do its functions well, the circulatory system must be in good shape to move throughout the entire human framework. What keeps the blood to assume its role is the presence of a protein material which is very essential in its transport responsibility of keeping the whole body structure healthy and alive. Normal hemoglobin levels are not, by any means, a measurement of some sorts. This is a life that is on the line. With a hemoglobin level way beyond the boundaries of being normal, it will just be a matter of time before the body system crumbles. Hemoglobin is a basic blood ingredient which makes a difference in the circulatory system.

The Hemoglobin Protein Molecules

Hemoglobin consists of four protein molecules. These tiny elements are bound together in globulin chains. Two groups consisting of the protein material. Alpha and beta sets are connected together to become the hemoglobin. Normal hemoglobin levels rely on these healthy chains. The basic responsibility of this kind of protein is to deliver oxygen to every part of the human body. It takes out the presence of carbon dioxide away from its circulatory path. Healthy hemoglobin leads to normal hemoglobin levels.

The rich red colour of the blood is also attributed to the presence of normal hemoglobin levels. A pale and a less viscous characteristic of the blood is a reflection of a problem. Laboratory tests use the complete blood count (CBC) as a measuring tool for normal hemoglobin levels. The hemoglobin is broken down under automated devices which exposes the protein to several laboratory tests. The cyanide is the best substance to reveal the insides of hemoglobin. It binds to the cell and breaks in apart in preparation for the next step of measurement. The amount of hemoglobin is determined by figuring its wavelength. How much light is absorbed reveals the total quantity of the blood protein?

Haemoglobin A1c Levels

Haemoglobin A1c levels also called HbA1c at times are a parameter to analyze the level of plasma glucose in the blood. It is also called a Glycated Hemoglobin level. Increased or decreased level, both are harmful to the human body.

Haemoglobin A1c levels or Glycated hemoglobin levels are used to determine the blood glucose level. An increased level of blood glucose indicates an increase in A1c level in the blood. This results in diabetes mellitus. This is an acute disease that is a warehouse of many deadly diseases like cardiovascular disease, neuropathy and retinopathy. The glucose in the human body combines with blood to supply energy and this way it forms Glycated hemoglobin. An increased level of glucose in the body results in a higher amount of this Glycated hemoglobin. Once increased, it can never be cured.

Here is a simplified table to determine blood sugar levels

A1c(%) Mean blood sugar (mg/dl)
6 135
7 170
8 205
9 240
10 275
11 310
12 345

Controlling Hemoglobin A1c Levels

However, there are many medicines that are used to keep hemoglobin A1c levels under control. Uncontrolled levels can cause multiple organ failure that results in death. There are various ways to measure the A1c level in the human body. These methods are given as follows, Laboratories- Labs use high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the level of A1c in the blood. This is sometimes also called as high-pressure liquid chromatography. The blood sample to be analyzed is mixed with a specific chemical to form a solution. The hemoglobin A1c levels are calculated as a ratio to the total hemoglobin by using a chromatogram.

Immunoassay Tests

Another method to determine the levels of A1c in the blood is immunoassay. Immunoassay is a test that is used to determine the concentration of any substance in a given sample. Generally, the samples of urine and serum are used as Analytes. The other method to determine hemoglobin A1c levels is the point of care devices. This includes two possible ways of measuring the level. One is the above-mentioned immunoassay technique. The other one is Boronate affinity chromatography.


Guidelines to Follow for Testing Hemoglobin A1c Levels

The results obtained may differ from laboratory to laboratory. The sole reasons behind the different levels are different techniques used and the age of the person undergoing this test. This test is of great importance to those who are pre-diabetic and to those who might be suffering for elevated A1c levels but do not know the same. The test helps in measuring and monitoring the hemoglobin A1c levels. The test is conducted in two stages. In one stage, the glucose level is taken after the consumption of food. This test helps in revealing far better information. In the other stage, the glucose level is taken when fasting. This is important in deciding the best treatment method to aid a suffering person, to maintain the level.

According to the American diabetes association guidelines, Glycated hemoglobin test should be conducted twice a year in the patients suffering from this chronic disease to determine their hemoglobin A1c levels.

High Hemoglobin Levels

High Hemoglobin – is it an Indicator of Underlying Disease
High hemoglobin levels in the blood could be an indicator of some underlying disease, and hence it’s important to undergo a thorough medical check-up.

Haemoglobin, a protein molecule and component of red blood cells, transports oxygen from lungs to cell tissues of the body and brings carbon dioxide back to lungs for exhalation. In adults, hemoglobin molecules consist of two alpha-globulin and two beta-globulin chains. The molecule called heme in hemoglobin has iron, which enables the transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Any imbalance in metabolism can cause high hemoglobin or dangerously low hemoglobin levels in the blood.

The High Hemoglobin Levels are:

  • Newborn babies: 17-22 gm/dl
  • Babies with aged 1 week: 15-20gm/dl
  • Babies aged 1 month: 11-15 gm/dl
  • Children:11-13 gm/dl
  • Adult (male): 14-18gm/dl
  • Adult(female): 12-16gm/dl
  • Adult(Female):12-16 gm/dl
  • Men aged more than 50 years: 12.4 to 14.9 gm/dl
  • Females aged more than 50 years: 11.7-13.8 gm/dl

How Important are Hemoglobin Levels?

Being a necessary component of the red blood cells, hemoglobin contributes roughly 35 per cent to the overall weight of red blood cells. It also gives blood its red colour and contributes to the difference in the colour of blood taken from different individuals. The blood with higher oxygen content appears brighter than the blood that has a lower level of hemoglobin. High hemoglobin levels can be determined by a blood check.


Haemoglobin in blood

The level of hemoglobin in blood is dependent largely on the age of a person and hence may it vary. When hemoglobin content is more than 17.5 grams per deciliter of blood in men and above 15.6 grams per deciliter in women, the person is said to have high hemoglobin. However, in children, the count varies due to factors such as age and sex. The level of hemoglobin in blood is an important indicator of one’s health.

High-altitudes and High Hemoglobin Levels

Usually, residents of high-altitudes have higher hemoglobin levels, because the rarefied atmosphere necessitates its higher level. Smokers have higher levels of hemoglobin, but the reason for this abnormality is not fully established. Medically, a hemoglobin level higher than 17.5gm/dl is considered not normal.

Reasons for High Hemoglobin Levels

There are several reasons for the high level of hemoglobin. It is observed that dehydration causes the hemoglobin level to drop temporarily. Lung diseases such as emphysema cause the level of hemoglobin in the blood to rise high. Any tumours in the body can also increase the hemoglobin level. Polycythemia Rubra Vera, a condition that proliferates red blood cells, also leads to high hemoglobin level. Consumption of any performance enhancement drugs, which interfere with body metabolism, also causes the hemoglobin level to rise.

Although leafy vegetables have a salubrious effect on health, their high iron content can lead to a high level of hemoglobin. Hence, such vegetables should be avoided by people with high hemoglobin. Certain medications can also increase hemoglobin in the body. Since the presence of higher levels of hemoglobin is not yet established as any disorder, it may be a symptom of some disease. Hence, it is important to treat the disease, rather than try and reduce the hemoglobin level through medications. You should also checkout “how to increase hemoglobin levels“.

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c level is determined by certain tests that are conducted in order to find long-term control of diabetes mellitus. When glucose molecules combine with hemoglobin, they form Glycated hemoglobin. If the level of glucose increases in the blood, it can never be brought down to the normal level.

What is Hemoglobin A1c?

Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c refers to the glucose molecule that permanently sticks with the hemoglobin molecule present in the red blood cells. This results in the formation of Glycated hemoglobin, which is more popularly called as HbA1c. There are several tests, which helps in determining the level of blood glucose. Glucose molecules attach to the hemoglobin present in the red blood cells of the human body. Once glucose molecules bind with hemoglobin and if there level rise beyond the normal level, it can never be recovered back, to reach the normal level.

Haemoglobin A1c ranges

The normal average life of a red blood cell is 8 to 12 weeks. Thus, by measuring the hemoglobin A1c level, you can get an account of your blood glucose level. The non-diabetic level ranges from 3.5% to 5.5%. However, the figure in case of people having higher glycated hemoglobin ranges from 6.5% to 7%.

Here is a simplified table to determine blood sugar levels

A1c(%) Mean blood sugar (mg/dl)
6 135
7 170
8 205
9 240
10 275
11 310
12 345

Haemoglobin A1c ranges

The patients who suffer from diabetes mellitus are required to undergo the hemoglobin A1c test, which helps in keeping their glucose level under check. Generally, this test is recommended every 3 to 6 months for the people who suffer from higher levels of Glycated hemoglobin. The level that is normal for a person having increased HbA1c level is 7% medically. However, it is difficult to have such high control over the glucose level in the body. Doctors aim to achieve a figure somewhere close to the medically recommended level of 7%. If the level goes beyond 9%, this forms an example of poor glucose level control and a level above 12% requires a great deal of medical attention.

Increased levels of Hemoglobin A1c

The increased levels of hemoglobin A1c that are uncontrolled, pose a very high threat of kidney failures. It also affects the eyesight and memory of the person in question. Such high levels sometimes need a supplement of insulin injection, to get the glucose level under control. There are generally two stages, in which, this test happens to take place. The sole reason behind this is the fact that the glucose levels in our body fluctuate minute-by-minute and day by day. Thus, one stage happens before you consume any meal i.e. when you are fasting, while the other happens to take place when you have your meal.

Thus, the meaning and importance of HbA1c or hemoglobin A1c level is clear by now. Even if you do not suffer from this disease, it is recommended to undergo a test at least once in a year for health reasons. On the contrary, the people who test positive against this disease should follow a very strict agenda, regarding their diet and the food items they should exclude.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test

A glycosylated Hemoglobin test is significant in the managing of diabetes mellitus. Medical studies and observations show a direct connection between hemoglobin levels with the concentration amount of glucose in the bloodstream. An increased hemoglobin count reveals an elevated quantity in glucose levels. The measurement method allows a monitoring process that can lead to adjustments in the treatment of the disease.

The Essentials Of A Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test

The binding process of sugar levels with hemoglobin in the circulatory system of the body provides a vital tool in the measurement of the glucose concentration in the blood. The complications of diabetes mellitus disease are made possible with the irregular amounts of sugar running through the body system. This medical condition can cause damage to the kidneys, the heart, the eyes and the nervous system. A glycosylated hemoglobin test process will be very helpful in monitoring diabetes. The consistency in monitoring the blood sugar level can prevent any injurious action to the rest of the body functions. The test is necessary in order to limit if not to eradicate the hostile effects of the disease.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin testing

Glycosylated hemoglobin testing is a vital part in the battle against diabetes mellitus. It is a preventive method of keeping the perilous condition within a manageable state of control. The breakout of the disease in the body involves a long-term administration of treatment action plan. Diabetes stays within the system for a lifetime. Once the symptoms are in place, the disease will be within striking distance to cause damage to the rest of the body organs. The need to control its effects can be found in the effectiveness of the monitoring process. It is difficult to protect the body from the complications of diabetes mellitus which is why preventive measures must be sought out from the start.


Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Sugar Levels

The sugar levels in the blood which continue to rise due to the non-utilization of the body can pose problems to the red blood cells particularly to the hemoglobin. Once the excess sugar attaches itself to the protein element, the function to carry oxygen is altered. This leads to a gradual disintegration of the interconnected activities of the body organs. A glycosylated hemoglobin testing allows the constant monitoring of the unused sugar amount to a more manageable level. The glucose content is directly proportional to the hemoglobin levels in the bloodstream. It is so because the binding process presents both elements within sight of each other to be observed and studied.

Glycosylated hemoglobin testing utilizes the vital presence of the hemoglobin as a tool to come close to analyzing the glucose concentration. Exposing the protein element under laboratory tests will reveal the amount of sugar. The test, which is also called HbA1c, must be conducted every three to six months. This duration allows physicians to make changes in the treatment methods involved in controlling diabetes mellitus. The monthly duration of glycosylated hemoglobin testing may seem too long but it is not affected by short-term effects of the disease. At any time, the results can still be utilized as a basis for treatment adjustment. Seven per cent is considered as the boundary line. Levels within six and eight are still considered good. Beyond the marks reflects a dangerous amount of diabetes complications.

Hemoglobin A1c Range

When glucose sticks with Hemoglobin in order to release energy, it forms Glycated hemoglobin. The normal level of the Hemoglobin A1c range is different in different individuals. However, increased levels are disastrous for health.

Haemoglobin Electrophoresis

Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a popular type of test which is being used to detect a number of problems. You need to have a good deal of understanding of this test before taking it.

What is Hemoglobin Electrophoresis

Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a type of blood test which is used to detect diverse types of hemoglobin. It makes use of the principles of the gel electrophoresis in order to separate out the different sorts of hemoglobin. This test has the ability to detect the abnormal levels of the HbS, This type of test is performed when the doctor suspects that the patient is suffering from some genetic disease which has developed from abnormal hemoglobin, like that of sickle cell anaemia. In this type of electrophoresis, hemoglobin particles are located in the electric field, which is a form associated with the sickle-cell disease.

Other Irregular Hemoglobin Electrophoresis

It is also used to detect different irregular hemoglobin-related blood problems like the hemoglobin C. Hemoglobin electrophoresis also helps to detect the deficiency of any normal condition of hemoglobin, as known in the disease of thalassemias.

There are Four Major Types of Hemoglobin:


  • Haemoglobin A is the most important component of hemoglobin present in the adult’s red blood cells
  • Haemoglobin C is a type of hemoglobin variant which is chiefly found in the black population that and it causes hemolytic anaemia
  • Haemoglobin F is the main component of hemoglobin in the fetus and it may even be present in little quantities in the adults
  • Haemoglobin S is a type of hemoglobin variant that is principally found in the black population and causes sickle cell anaemia


Haemoglobin charges

Diverse hemoglobin comes with different charges, and it is on the basis of these charges and amount, that the hemoglobins are found to operate at different speeds both in the alkaline gel and the acid gel. The Hemoglobin electrophoresis is popularly known as the thalassemia screening, and it is highly helpful for those people who are in constant need of a transfusion of fresh blood. what hemoglobin level requires a
blood transfusion? Its simple…This kind of blood transfusion is required by those people whose body has lost the ability to produce enough amount of Hemoglobin needed for the body.


How is Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Conducted

Now, how is Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Conducted? Well, the doctor often makes use of this test in order to diagnose the diseases which consist of abnormal hemoglobin production. Doctors often order this test when it is seen that a child has a family history of hemoglobinopathy or suffers from some problem of iron deficiency. In many places, this test is performed as an element of the series of blood tests carried out as a part of newborn screening. It is used to avoid falling prey to potentially life-threatening problems.

Hemoglobin A1c Chart

For those who have diabetes and are working on the problem, regular blood work tests are essential. The Hemoglobin A1c chart is one such important test.

What Does Your Hemoglobin A1c Chart Tell You

The Hemoglobin A1c chart allows a person to get a better idea of the level of blood sugar in a patient. It is also called the bgb A1c test. Here a form of hemoglobin called glycated hemoglobin is measured to identify the average concentration of plasma glucose in the body. Here the blood sugar level or glucose is measured over a period of 3 months.

History of the Hemoglobin A1c Chart

Haemoglobin A1c was first found by Huisman and Meyering in 1958, but it was proposed to be used for monitoring the control of glucose metabolism in diabetics by Anthony Cerami, Ronald Koenig and coworkers in 1976. Thus the Hemoglobin A1c chart and test were created. It is used as a standard tool to determine blood sugar control in patients known to have diabetes. This test is recommended for those who might be pre-diabetic and for monitoring blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. It measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin in the blood. It is a combination of hemoglobin and glucose. The Hemoglobin A1c chart allows doctors to determine how much sugar has been in the body for the 3 months of the red blood cells life, by measuring the amount of glycated in the blood. Due to this long period of time, doctors can get a complete picture of the patient’s health condition.

Here is a simplified table to determine blood sugar levels

A1c(%) Mean blood sugar (mg/dl)
6 135
7 170
8 205
9 240
10 275
11 310
12 345

Haemoglobin A1c ranges

A normal person who doesn’t have diabetes will show a lower percentage, preferably below 6% (usually 5%). Any result above 7% is a clear sign that the patient can develop diabetic complications and must make changes to better manage this increased glucose level through diet, exercise, etc. People with type 1 diabetes may show results of 25% or higher. Another method of testing the level of glucose in our blood is by using a glucose meter. Here the patient has to prick his finger with the needle provided; then place the blood on the blood glucose meter which gives the value. A hemoglobin A1c chart offers a comparison between the A1c test and the glucose meter reading we take.

While the glucose meter reading is for a short term and the A1c test is for a term (3 months) results. The normal reading is 6% which is 135 mg/dl blood sugar. A hemoglobin A1c chart is a very good indicator of the condition of a diabetic patient. Thus a test needs to be taken at least twice in a year and should be done in addition to daily blood sugar testing.

Haemoglobin Electrophoresis Interpretation

The Hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation is used in order to find a solution to the problems of hemoglobin. There are a number of proteins present with different degrees of concentration and you need to undergo the hemoglobin electrophoresis test in order to develop an understanding. Details of the reasons why this test is carried out have been given following which would help to solve a number of related queries.

Normal Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Interpretation

There are various varieties of hemoglobin in which hemoglobin A’s percentage is maximum. Of the whole amount of hemoglobin that the blood consists of, hemoglobin A comprises of 95-98%, and the rest consists of hemoglobin F and hemoglobin A2. Standard hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation results show the lack of unusual variants of the hemoglobin.

The Function of Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Interpretation

The main reason why people undergo the hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation is to determine whether the diverse varieties of hemoglobin are maintaining their regular range. This type of blood test helps to determine hemoglobin’s level which is there in blood. And it is the hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation helps to determine the condition of a person’s health.

More about Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Interpretation

The hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation helps the doctors in diagnosing different types of blood problems such as Thalassemia.


Haemoglobin Electrophoresis Interpretation Outcome is Interpreted in Different ways:


  1. Blood tests which determine the presence of the problem of the Abnormal Hemoglobin in minute amounts mean that there is an occurrence of E trait which suggests E disease.
  2. If hemoglobin electrophoresis suggest excessively high levels of both hemoglobin F and A2, the person is likely to have thalassemia
  3. If the results of the blood test tell that hemoglobin F is present in an excessive concentration in comparison to hemoglobin A, it would mean the considerable increase of thalassemia.
  4. Presence of an unusual nature of Hemoglobin C in little amounts which suggests of hemoglobin C disease trait, therefore, the occurrence of the disease related to hemoglobin C.
  5. Unusual kind of Hemoglobin C when detected in blood in a very less level indicates sickle cell disease.
  6. Those hemoglobin electrophoresis blood sample tests indicate a different type of abnormal hemoglobin present in the blood.
  7. The hemoglobin electrophoresis interpretation is a dependable tool which is used to detect blood problems. If, the results suggest abnormal levels of hemoglobin, these results should be considered as a symptom and necessary steps taken against it.


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