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The body’s specific response to changes in blood glucose
Glucose is the simplest form of carbohydrates. It is a monosaccharide. Our food, which contains a large proportion of carbohydrates, is digested and absorbed in the form of glucose. After digestion at the cellular level, it produces energy in the form of ATP.
Carbohydrate digestion begins orally in the presence of amylase. Convert carbohydrates into maltose. The final digestion takes place in the small intestine where the pancreatic tissue secretes the pancreatic juice. It contains amylase (amilopsin) that converts carbohydrates into glucose.
In the intestine, glucose is absorbed and becomes part of the blood. It reaches the cells of the body and
Produces ATP. The portion of glucose that passes through the liver is converted to glycogen, an insoluble form of carbohydrates. Every time glucose levels in the body fluctuate, glycogen is converted to glucose for energy.
Energy is produced not only by glucose but also by lipid and protein monomers. But brain cells and nerve cells meet energy requirements through the glucose level. Hence the importance of blood sugar level in our body. A high glucose level is called hyperglycemia that leads to diabetes mellitus, while a low glucose level is called hypoglycemia.
Along with absorption, the pancreas plays an important role in maintaining glucose levels in the body. The pancreas is a large gland below the abdomen in the body. It acts as an exocrine and endocrine gland.
As an exocrine gland, it secretes digestive enzymes, which contain the juice, “pancreatic juice.”
Amylase. Amylase helps digest carbohydrates in the form of glucose.
While as an endocrine gland, it secretes a variety of hormones that control glucose levels in the body. This gland produces glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin to control glucose levels in the body.
The pancreas secretes insulin in response to glucose by entering the blood. Glucose affects red blood cells to carry oxygen, and this is done in response to insulin entering the body. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to glucose levels, so it differs in the fasting and eating states.
An increase in the level of glucose stimulates the beta cells of the pancreas that begin to secrete insulin. Insulin stimulates fat and muscle tissue to overcome glucose in the blood. There are also transporters (glutes) that help transfer glucose through fat and muscle cells.
The absorption of glucose by blood cells depends on the release of insulin. As cells absorb glucose, the level of glucose in the blood decreases, and the rest accumulates as glycogen.
After several hours when the glucose level drops, the alpha cells of the pancreas are stimulated and begin to secrete glucose. Glucagon has the opposite effect of insulin.
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